For women, breast care is important. Prevention of various breast diseases, timely inspection, early diagnosis and early treatment are the key links to ensure breast health. Common breast problems, how should we deal with them? Do you have to remove your breasts if you have breast cancer?
Sina Health: The incidence of breast cancer globally and in China?
Li Huiping: In 2012, nearly 1.67 million new breast cancers occurred, and Central Africa and East Asia were relatively low. The incidence increased with economic development. In the United States, it is the first incidence of female malignancies, accounting for 26% of female malignancies and 18% of mortality. According to incomplete statistics, the incidence of breast cancer in China in 1980 was 30,900, accounting for the ninth incidence of malignant tumors, and rose to seventh in 1985. The number of cases has doubled, in Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, etc. In large cities with better medical conditions, morbidity and mortality have increased significantly. Because the breast tissue is located on the body surface, it is easy to detect abnormal changes early by self-examination.
Sina Health: What are the main causes of breast cancer?
Li Huiping: On the one hand, it is a genetic factor. The BRCA1 / 2 gene is the most common genetic gene. This gene is mainly a tumor suppressor gene. After mutation, the gene does not achieve the effect of suppressing cancer, so it is prone to canceration. On the other hand is estrogen intake, and there are also some reasons for high-calorie diets, inactivity, alcohol and smoking.
Sina Health: Which groups are more likely to get breast cancer?
Li Huiping: First of all, people with a family genetic history are more likely to get breast cancer. That is to say, the family has a history of breast cancer. If it is a first-degree relative, the mother or sister must do relevant breast cancer genetic testing. This is a risk factor. Once again, it is a factor of lifestyle habits. Too much high-protein and high-fat foods will cause an increase in estrogen levels and increase the risk of breast cancer. Obese people are 1 to 1.5 times more likely to develop breast cancer than normal weight people, and breast cancer is twice as likely to spread. Postmenopausal women are more likely to develop breast cancer if they are overweight or obese.
Sina Health: Is it possible for men to develop breast cancer? Is there any special reason for breast cancer in men?
Li Huiping: Yes, the cause of breast cancer in men is about the same as that in women. The most important related factor for breast cancer is mental stress. There are also factors for drinking. Alcohol can stimulate the secretion of estrogen, and estrogen exerts its physiological role through blood circulation and inactivates in the liver, thereby completing its metabolic process and keeping the estrogen in the blood stable. Reduce liver function, reduce the amount of estrogen inactivation, increase the level of estrogen in the blood, and induce breast cancer. Obesity also easily causes breast cancer, etc.
Sina Health: How to self-examine breast cancer?
Li Huiping: Regularly palpate, stand, touch your fingers close together, stretch your upper arm over the head to check the inner half of the breast, and lower the upper arm to check the outer half of the breast. Check the order of the inner, upper and lower armpits carefully and comprehensively for any lump, and press the areola to see if any fluid is discharged. Touch the axillary and supraclavicular fossa for enlarged lymph nodes. It should also be noted that palpation cannot replace clinical examinations, so regular visits to professional doctors are required.
Sina Health: What is the specific disease of breast hyperplasia? What does it have to do with breast cancer?
Li Huiping: Breast hyperplasia is not necessarily related to the occurrence of breast cancer. Hyperplasia of the breast occurs in most women. It is a condition of female breasts during development, not a disease. It has no effect on life, it will decrease or disappear with increasing age.
Sina Health: What are the treatments for breast cancer?
Li Huiping: Surgical treatment is possible. In addition to surgery, chemotherapy is also available. Chemotherapy is a systemic treatment through chemical drugs. Through some relatively sensitive drugs, control the regeneration and division of tumor cells. There is also endocrine therapy. Relative to other tumors, breast cancer is a hormone-dependent tumor. After the hormone-dependent tumor is detected, the tumor specimen indicates that it is ER-positive, indicating that it is a hormone-dependent tumor. Blocking this hormone, breast cancer The chance of recurrence or metastasis is relatively reduced. This part of the patients need endocrine therapy. Targeted therapy is Herceptin. After patients use targeted therapy, the tumor response rate is relatively high.
Sina Health: Do breast cancer patients have to have their breasts removed? Is breast removal the same as breast preservation?
Li Huiping: Surgery is a way to cure breast cancer. It depends on the size of the tumor and the condition to decide whether it is breast-conserving or full-cut. Patients who have had their breasts removed and retained their breasts eventually worry about recurrence or metastasis. In fact, the chances of recurrence and metastasis of breast-conserving surgery are similar to those of recurrence and metastasis after total mastectomy. No significant difference was found between the two. There are also some non-standard breast-conserving surgery that have a high probability of recurrence and metastasis, because breast-conserving surgery also requires standardized treatment, and standard-conserved breast-conserving surgery is basically the same as total mastectomy.
Sina Health: After mastectomy, it can now be restored through plastic surgery or breast reconstruction. What are the forms of breast reconstruction?
Li Huiping: Basically includes autologous and prosthetic. The body is that some women have fat on the lower abdomen, or have already given birth to a child. Her abdomen can be used as a reconstructed material to transplant the fat and skin of her abdomen to this part of the breast. There are also latissimus dorsi muscles that you can choose to rebuild. These are some very mature technologies. There are many types of prostheses, such as silicone, and many other materials. These prostheses can be selected by the patient.
Sina Health: How to prevent breast cancer?
Li Huiping: Self-examination is very important. First, we must do a good self-examination. Also have healthy eating habits, pay attention to eat less hormone-containing foods. You also need to learn to release yourself and relieve stress. If you are nervous and work under pressure, take appropriate time to relieve the relief. Don't have anxiety situations, such as mental factors, or when you encounter unexpected situations, learn to adjust yourself. Many breast cancer patients have had mental factors before they became ill, such as huge stress, or what kind of blow they have suffered, and so on, they must learn to adjust. Eliminate bad habits like alcohol and smoking.